How might national policymakers improve access to affordable, high-quality health coverage and care, and constrain health care spending? The current system of insurance coverage in the U.S. has led to persistent gaps in access to affordable coverage and care—leaving 1 in 10 without coverage and nearly a third of adults under the age of 65 with inadequate coverage that puts them at risk of health and financial insecurity. Additionally, the rising cost of health care puts pressure on individuals and families, employers, and federal and state governments. In response to these challenges, policymakers, academics, and a variety of stakeholders are presenting a wide range of proposals, including proposals to change Medicare eligibility. In 2019, the Academy launched a Medicare Eligibility Study Panel to help policymakers and the public understand potential impacts of expanding Medicare. In March 2020, the Academy’s Study Panel released its final report, which provides an overview of policy design issues and assesses the potential impacts of three approaches to changing Medicare eligibility: lowering the eligibility age; establishing Medicare-for-all; and creating a Medicare buy-in. This project received support from a range of partners and funders, including The Commonwealth Fund, Arnold Ventures, the Buffin Foundation, the AFL-CIO, and the International Brotherhood of Teamsters.